History of Pakistan


History of Pakistan


 


The history of Pakistan (Urdu: تاریخپاکستان‎‎) the history of the region constituting modern-day Pakistan. For over three millennia, the region has witnessed human activity and one of the worlds major civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilisation. The trade routes which traverse the Indus Valley linking Central Asia, India and the Orient have attracted people from as far as Greece and Mongolia and countless imperial powers, the last being the British Empire.


 


People of Pakistan:


The major ethnic groups of Pakistan in numerical size include: Punjabis, Pashtuns, Sindhis, Siddis, Saraikis, Muhajirs, Baloch, Hindkowans, Chitralis, Gujarati and other smaller groups. Smaller ethnic groups, such as Kashmiris, Kalash, Burusho, Khowar, Hazara, Shina, Kalyu and Balti are mainly found in the northern parts of the country.


Pakistans census does not include the registered 1.7 million Afghan refugees from neighboring Afghanistan, who are mainly found in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) areas, with small numbers in the cities of Karachi and Quetta. Many of them were born inside Pakistan in the last 30 years and are counted as citizens, and most of them are ethnic Pakhtuns from southeastern Afghanistan.


About 99% of languages spoken in Pakistan are of the Indo-Iranian branch (sub-branches: 75% of the Indo-Aryan branchand 20% of the Iranian branch), a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.[citation needed]


The majority of the population belong to the Iranic and Indo-Aryan subgroupings of peoples. The Nuristanis constitute another subgrouping amongst the Indo-Iranian peoples but are not indigenous to Pakistan.  Although the Dardic peoples and their languages are often miscategorized as another branch of Indo-Iranian peoples and linguistics, they are actually determined to be a subgrouping within Indo-Aryan; speaking individual archaic Indo-Aryan languages that are derived from proto-Indo-Aryan and not Sanskrit as in the case of most modern-day Indo-Aryan


 


Languages of Pakistan:


Pakistans national language is Urdu, which, along with English, is also the official language. In 2015, the government of Pakistan announced plans to make Urdu the sole official language and abolish English as the second official language.[1] The country is also home to several regional languages, including Punjabi, Saraiki, Pashto, Sindhi, Balochi, Kashmiri, Hindko, Brahui, Shina, Balti, Khowar, Dhatki, Marwari, Wakhi and Burushaski. From among these, four (Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, and Balochi) are provincial languages.


 


Traditions of Pakistan:


The society and culture of Pakistan (Urdu: ثقافتِپاکستان‎‎ S̱aqāfat-e-Pākistān) comprises numerous ethnic groups: the Punjabis, Potwaris, Kashmiris, Sindhis in east, Muhajirs, Makrani in the south; Baloch, Hazaras and Pashtuns in the west; and the Dards, Wakhi, Baltis, Shinaki and Burusho communities in the north. The culture of these Pakistani ethnic groups have been greatly influenced by many of its neighbours, such as the other South Asians, Turkic peoples as well as the peoples of Central Asia and West Asia.


The region has formed a distinct unit within the main geographical complex of South Asia, West Asia the Middle East and Central Asia from the earliest times, and is analogous to the position of Afghanistan. There are differences among the ethnic groups in cultural aspects such as dress, food, and religion, especially where pre-Islamic customs differ from Islamic practices. Their cultural origins also reveal influences from far afield, including China, India and Afghanistan. Pakistan was the first region of South Asia to be fully impacted by Islam and has thus developed a distinct Islamic identity, historically different from areas further east


Festivals of Pakistan:


Islamic Festivals





















































Day



Month



Festival



1



Muharram



New Islamic Year



First day of the Islamic calendar



12



Rabi al-awwal



Eid-e-Milād-un-Nabī



Birthday of the Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H)



27



Rajab



Miraj-un-Nabi



Muhammad(P.B.U.H) night journey



27



Ramadan



Laylat al-Qadr



The night when first verses of Quran were received by Muhammad(P.B.U.H)



30/31



Ramadan



Chand Raat



The last night of Ramadan celebrated on 29th or 30th depending on when the new moon is sighted



1



Shawal



Eid ul Fitr



The celebration at the end of the fasting month (Ramadan)



10



Dhu al-Hijjah



Eid al-Adha



The celebration Ibrahim(P.B.U.H)Example of sacrifice of his Son and Ismail (A.S)



         Chaand Raat


         Iqbal Day


         Quaid-e-Azam Day


         Pakistan Flower Show


         Yom-e Bab ul-Islam


 


Local events





































































Day



Month



Festival



23-26



February



Pakistan Flower Show



Flower Show at Karachi



February–March



Jashn-e-Baharaan



The celebrations with the start of Spring season



23



March



Pakistan Day



Republic Day and to commemorate the Lahore Resolution



28



May



Youm-e-Takbir



Celebrated in commemoration of the first Nuclear test



14



August



Independence Day



6



September



Defence Day



Celebrated in memory of those who were killed in the Indo-Pak war of 1965



7



September



Air Force Day



Celebrated to commend the role of Pakistan Air Force in the 1965 war with India



8



September



Navy Day



Celebrated to commend the role of Pakistan Navy in the 1965 war with India



9



November



Iqbal Day



Birthday of   Sir Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal (R.A)



25



December



Quaid-e-Azam Day



Birthday of Muhammad Ali Jinnah



 


Religions in Pakistan:


The state religion in Pakistan is Islam, which is practiced by about 95–98% of the 195,343,000 people of the nation. But freedom of the religion is guaranteed by Pakistan constitution. Pakistani constitution established a fundamental right in which all Pakistani citizens irrespective of Religions have equal rights. The remaining 2–5% practice Christianity, Hinduism, Sikhism and other religions.


Pakistani Literature:


Pakistan literature is a distinct literature that gradually came to be defined after Pakistan gained nationhood status in 1947, emerging out of literary traditions of the South Asia.[1] The shared tradition of Urdu literature and English literature of British Indiawas inherited by the new state. Over a period a body of literature unique to Pakistan has emerged in nearly all major Pakistani languages, including Urdu, English, Punjabi, Seraiki, Balochi, Pushto and Sindhi.


 


Media of Pakistan.


Media in Pakistan provides information on television, radio, cinema, newspapers, and magazines in Pakistan. Pakistan has a vibrant media landscape; among the most dynamic in South Asia. To a large extent the media enjoys freedom of expression in spite of political pressure and direct bans sometimes administered by political stake holders.


 


Sports of Pakistan:


The most popular sport in Pakistan is cricket, while field hockey, polo, and squash are also popular in Pakistan.[1]Traditional sports like kabaddi and other well-known games are also played. The Pakistan Sports Board was created in 1962 by the Ministry of Education as a corporate body for the purposes of promoting and developing uniform standards of competition in sports in Pakistan comparable to the standards prevailing internationally, and regulating and controlling sports in Pakistan on a national basis. The Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, now has control over the Pakistan Sports Board. The PSB controls all 39 sporting federations. The Pakistan Sports Board is supported by the Pakistan Sports Trust, which assists hard up players and associations so they can continue participating in sports.


Over recent years there has been an increase in sporting activity in Pakistan, with Pakistani sportsmen and women participating at many national and international events. Also, more international tournaments now take place in Pakistan. The size of the teams Pakistan sends, and the number of events they participate in, such as the Olympic Games, Asian Games, World Games, and Commonwealth Games has increased since the turn of the century.


 


Symbols of Pakistan:


Pakistan has several official national symbols including a historic document, a flag, an emblem, an anthem, a memorial tower as well as several national heroes. The symbols were adopted at various stages in the existence of Pakistan and there are various rules and regulations governing their definition or use. The oldest symbol is the Lahore Resolution, adopted by the All India Muslim League on 23 March 1940, and which presented the official demand for the creation of a separate country for the Muslims of India. The Minar-e-Pakistan memorial tower which was built in 1968 on the site where the Lahore Resolution was passed. The national flag was adopted just before independence was achieved on 14 August 1947. The national anthem and the state emblem were each adopted in 1954. There are also several other symbols including the national animal, bird, flower and tree.